December 3, 2022


Colonizing the Moon

After Apollo 17, the last manned mission to the moon in 1972, left to come back to Earth, people seemed to check it off their list. The moon hadn’t showed us too much excitement and the next great challenge was calling, Mars. However in 2009, scientist confirmed the existence of water on the Moon’s South Pole, this pointed to the fact that habitation of the Moon is actually possible. Major influencers in the field of space exploration such as Buzz Aldrin, Stephen Hawking, and Johann-Dietrich Worner through their support behind the colonization of the Moon. Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield said it perfectly, “There’s a public appetite for going to Mars right now in a big hurry, but there’s no tech to make it safe enough and affordable.” The Moon being only three days away would be a great place to learn to live in space.

With all of the perks of going back to the Moon, the largest said by Spudis is that we could transform our Earth-based space program into a space-based program, and turn the Moon into our gateway to the galaxy. The Moon has one-sixth of Earth’s gravity meaning that it would be much easier and efficient to launch from the moon. If we colonize the Moon and turn the lunar water into propellent Spudis says this would, “solve the major stumbling block of getting significant mass and power to different places in space.”

Sending the proper amount of materials to the Moon to build a base could cost hundreds of billions of dollars but thankfully Foster and Partners, a London international Architecture company is working on that. They plan to use the materials already on the Moon, most noticeably regolith, the moon dust, to be building blocks for the base. Foster and Partners wants to send a inflatable dome and two robots who would 3-D print the regolith into a shield type structure, this in tandem with the dome would hold four people and protect them from extreme temperatures, meteorites, and radiation.

There ares still major unknowns and issues that we are trying to figure out before we could perform this great feat. For one, the low gravity on the human body has repercussions such as poor circulation, decreased bone density, and weakened muscles. However, longterm consequences are largely unknown and can only really be tested with experience. Also cost would be a very large issue. Spudis came to the conclusion that it would take $88 billion over 16 years as a rough estimate. Gregg Easterbrook, a critic of space colonization, says this extremely foolish, “We’re talking about the entire United States federal budget. At that point, you just laugh. It just doesn’t make any sense.” This may be very true currently but I believe future advancement will greatly decrease the costs and with people like Foster and Partners working with out-of-the-box ideas we are sure to find success.

Fossils on the Moon

With the list of unexplored places on Earth growing smaller and smaller everyday, the odds of us finding new evidence pointing to our planet’s origins decreases. Surprisingly we could look to the stars to learn more. The moon is lifeless, and probably always will be, however this very deadness makes it extremely important in our search for the origin of Earth. It is possible that the moon’s surface holds an unprecedented fossil record of life on Earth or from our surrounding planets. The oldest evidence of life on Earth dates back to 3.5 billion years ago. There is a major possibility that we could find evidence of life on the Moon coming from Earth dating back much further than this. Because the Moon has no atmosphere and no plate tectonics, anything that lands there stays in pristine condition. I, without a doubt, believe that there is some form of Earth material showing signs of life on the Moon.

The last time we visited the Moon was 1972. Now we are all very focused on our next major objective, Mars, but are we skipping over a key to our past? We have only visited a minuscule fraction of the Moon and we have already dismissed it as lifeless and dead. There is so much potential for what we could find if we go back.

Through the research of Luis and Walter Alvarez in the 1980s it was discovered that small bits of Earth and astroids are sprinkled around the Earth. After asteroid impacts, pieces of rock had been flung into space and melted on re-entry into the atmosphere creating tektites. The bits and pieces of crater and asteroid spread all over the world is a testament to the violence of the event and evidence that most of the ejected crust took to space and even circled the globe before finally falling back to Earth. Could these chunks of rock travel to the moon though? A Journal, Icarus, in 2002 said it could and that although most rock travels back down to Earth, an appreciable amount breaks free and fell onto other bodies in our solar system. This was proven when the meteorite ALH 84001 was discovered and believed to contain fossils of bacterial life from Mars. Although the bacteria part was wrong, this discovery did point to the fact that planetary rocks could routinely travel vast distances across the solar system. This also breathed life into the concept of panspermia which is the idea that microbes can travel from planet to plant on rock blasted into space by an impact.

A man named John Armstrong teamed up with Llyd Wells and Guillermo Gonzalez to begin serious work of calculating whether a impact on the Earth could send enough amounts of material to the moon. They decided that in order for this idea to be accepted they would need to figure out how big the impact would need to be to propel crust beyond our planets gravitational pull and they would need to see if the frequency of these events is enough for appreciable quantities of material to end up on the moon. Through their research they found that the asteroid would actually only need to be about 100 meters in diameter and leave a crater a kilometer across, this is relatively small as asteroids come in the past. It seems the rate of these types of impacts is roughly once every 100,000 years recently, and far more frequently in the distant past. Armstrong and his team calculated that a single impact of a 100 meter asteroid would deposit about 120 kilograms of fairly pristine Earth rock on each 100 square kilometers of the moon surface. Even with a conservative estimate, there could be up to a few million tons of Earth rock on the Moon. The material is there and waiting to be found, all we need to do is look for it.

Six Reasons We Should Build a Base on the Moon

After learning that NASA might have plans to go back to the moon under the Trump administration, I was inspired to get to the root of whether this would be a good idea. The past three presidents have changed the agenda of space travel three different times which has proved troublesome in terms of budgeting and efficiency because this occurs every 4-8 years. So why should we change this agenda again and potentially set us back several years agains? Through research I hoped to find why the Moon should be our first goal at the moment.

Beginning my research I was looking for articles that expressed some of the advantages and disadvantages for both the moon and mars being our number one goal. Upon a simple google search I found two great articles from that brought these opposing views and helped me realize that both sides have some validity and that this topic is arguable for both sides. One specific worry of going back to the moon was that NASA would become, “sidetracked with years upon years of lunar exploration.” After all we would basically be discovering an entire planet from scratch. 

One of the more interesting articles that I read and decided to use as my annotations was from National Geographic. This site gave six great reasons as to why we should build a moon base. These reasons were, to maintain US influence, pave way for other applications, to learn more about the moon, assess health impacts of living in space, to learn to build and operate a extraterrestrial base, and to set forth our goal of becoming an interplanetary species. You can find some further thoughts of mine at the site. The main point this article helped me come to was that Mars is still a great goal to reach for in the future but to ensure safety and efficiency I believe it would be smartest to use the Moon as a sort of stepping stone for our further exploration of space. I think it is fine for private companies to go for Mars but as a national agenda and for NASA we should focus on the Moon. One quote I really liked was, “If we ever want to build a colony on Mars, the first step may be to prove ourselves on the moon.” Like I said the moon must be a stepping stone to perfect our practices such as space-living and getting a reliable source of water and food. Once we prove ourselves on the moon, we will be ready for the real challenge, Mars. 


Two World Collide

Here is my Project:


Here are some steps to create an awesome Animation like this.

  1. Brainstarm for ideas
  2. Turn those ideas into scripts
  3. Animate it
  4. Revise everything
  5. Show to friend and ask for tips
  6. Use those tips
  7. Repeat steps 5-6 3 times
  8. Publish
  9. Show to teacher
  10. Get Praised!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Act I

Jarvis: Hello, I am Jarvis. I am Tony Stark’s personal assistant other than Miss Pepper Potts. Today, I am going to show you a story that many of you will not know about.

Jarvis: The unforetold story of Iron Man and Optimus Prime and the Alien of Disgustingness.

Jarvis: Here are some interesting facts you should know about them.

[Portfolio pops up and shows you Tony Stark’s picture. 2 seconds later, his info pops up underneath.]

[Portfolio Closes]

[Red and blue briefcase comes in and opens up]

[Optimus Prime’s picture shows up. 2 seconds later, his info pops up underneath]

[Briefcase disappears]

[Alien Corpse shows up with a big hole in the middle.]

[Info pops up in green font.]

[2 seconds later, a bunch of kids say ewwww at the same time]

Jarvis: But before we begin, if you are under the age of 12 than don’t watch this animation. Thank you and enjoy the story.

In A Galaxy far, far, Away

(Needle Scratches)

Right here on Earth

Act 2

Jarvis: Sir, incoming message from Optimus Prime.

Stark: (Groggily) What time is it Jarvis?

Jarvis: It is currently 2 AM 56°F outside right now. It is partly clou(Starks cuts him of)

Stark: I don’t care right now what the weather is like. Where is he?

Jarvis: He is actually right outside.

Stark: (Suddenly sits up) (Suddenly awake) WHAT!!! Assemble the Iron Legion!

Jarvis: Sir, can’t you confront him yourself?

Stark: Yes, but if history repeats itself, I’ll need another arc reactor. And they don’t grow on trees.

Jarvis: Sir, you have a room filled with emergency arc reactors.

Stark: Fine, Get my suit.

<5 minutes later>

Prime: Well, hello again Tony.

Stark: Hello Prime. What do you need from me right now.

Prime: There is a species of aliens coming here to destroy Earth.

Stark: What did I tell you about bringing your stupid Decepticons here to Earth.

Prime: First of all, they are not Decepticons. Second, they are an intellectual alien species that have stolen and wrecked havoc in the solar system.

Stark: So they are technically space pirates.

Prime: Yes, they have asked us to call them the ΘΗ ΙΔΙΟΤΣ.

Stark: English please.

Prime: The Idiots.

Stark: Ok. So when are they coming?

Prime: On the eclipse.

Stark: So about 2 days.

Prime: Yes.

Jarvis: Sir, if I may interrupt. In two days, you have a date with Miss Potts.

Stark: Oh yeah. Sorry Prime, but you remember last time when I accidentally skipped date night.

Prime: Yes, that was painful to watch. So are you in?

Stark: Yes, I am in. But after that, be sure to stay out of a 50 mile radius of her. I assume you have a team ready.

Prime: Yes, me, Bumblebee, Ratchet, Arcee, Sideswipe, Skids and Mudflap, Leadfoot, Topspin and Roadbuster.

Stark: So you basically just named all the Transformers still alive.

Prime: So what is your team?

Stark: The usual. Capt. America, Falcon, Hawkeye, Black Widow, Thor, Hulk, Scarlet Witch, Vision, Black Panther, War Machine, Spider Man, Spider Girl, She-Hulk and Winter Soldier.

Prime: –zzzz– Hmm. Ok that is quite a team there.

Stark: You weren’t even listening.

Prime: No, but we will probably kick some buttock in 2 days.

Stark: It’s butt, not buttock, grandma. Who says that?

End of Act 2

Act 3

Stark: Here is my team.

Stark: Say hello to Capt. America, Falcon, Hawkeye, Black Widow, Thor, Hulk, Scarlet Witch, Vision, Black Panther, War Machine, Spider Man, Spider Girl, She-Hulk and Winter Soldier.

Prime: So here is my team.

Prime: Bumblebee, Ratchet, Arcee, Sideswipe, Skids and Mudflap, Leadfoot, Topspin and Roadbuster.

<Ominous music plays>

[They feel a blast coming from space and there is a dot coming]

Stark: Everybody, suit up!

Rodgers: That’s my line Stark!

Prime: Don’t argue about this now or else there won’t be a tomorrow to fight about it.

<6 hours later>

[The spaceship has landed on the moon]

Rodgers: How are we suppost to get up there?

Stark: That, Cap. is why I am leader. We fly!

Rodgers: With what? It’s not like we have suits to to fly us up there and can fight in them in space.

Stark: Jarvis. I’ll lead you to tell them about their suits.

Jarvis: Ladies and gentlemen. Your Battle Alien Reinforced FlowerPower. Or B.A.R.F for short. Sorry about the name but Mr. Stark insisted that, that was going to be the name because he would find that in the suit after this so called “saving the world”.

T’Challa: Are they specialized in our abilities and powers?

Jarvis: Yes. For instance, Hawkeye has a built in quiver with rocket propelled arrows specially designed for space. Hulk has a stretch suit with rockets at the elbows to deliver more powerful punches. Capt. America has rockets on his shield so that he can control it flight pattern in space. Shall I go on?

Romanoff: (in a bored tone) No, please keep going. Wake me up when he gets to my suit.

Jarvis: Black Widow has Tesla guns that shoot massive amounts of electricity. Since bullets won’t cut it in space against aliens with bulletproof skin.

Romanoff: Nice.

Jarvis: Black Panther has a r

<20 minutes later>

Stark: Wow, even I got bored listening to all that.

Wilson: —zzz—

Romanoff: —zzz—

T’Challa: —zzz—

Thor: —zzz—

Rodger: —zzz—

Maximoff: —zzz—

Rhodes: —zzz—

T’Challa: —zzz—

Branner: —zzz—





Bucky: —zzz—



[Everyone wakes up]

Stark: We go to space!!!

<10 minutes later>

[You see 25 dots rising from Malibu, California]

Jarvis: Distance to destination 100,000 miles.

[Land on moon]

[Alien mob waiting for them]

[The fight starts]

[Zooms in on specific people fighting]

<20 minutes later>

Stark: That was easy and hilarious. Capt cot hit in the face 3 times

[Instant Replay]

[Massive thumbs up pops up]

The End

The Moon and It’s Slow Disappearance

Having curiosity of how the world would belike  if the moon disappeared, I read various articles about moon disappearance-some hypothetical and probable theories that could happen based on current events.  Dr. Maggie Aderon-Pocock wrote in a BBC article  “The Moon continues to spin away from the Earth, at the rate of 3.78cm (1.48in) per year, at about the same speed at which our fingernails grow.   Without the Moon, the Earth could slow down enough to become unstable, but this would take billions of years and it may never happen at all.  The migration of the Moon away from the Earth is mainly due to the action of the Earth’s tides”.   Without the moon, We would have less substantial high and low tides without the Moon. However, there would still be tides, because the Sun also has a tidal effect, although it only amounts to about half that of the Moon, explains Kaare Aksnes, professor emeritus at the Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Oslo, in addition this we would have shorter work days and the Earth’s axis will tilt rearranging the Earth so that the Congo would end up at the North Pole.

Photo by LadyDragonflyCC – >;<