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November 26, 2022

 

Genetic Engineering: Gut Reaction

Genetic Engineering is the modification of different organisms in order to manipulate their genetic code. Genetic Engineering can be used in lots of different ways, such as modifying crops to feed more people, or by creating medicines such as Humulin to treat Type 1 Diabetes. I think these are good uses of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering in my opinion, should be used to help wipe out certain diseases and to help more people. I don’t think it should be used in a superficial way to affect what type of genes human’s offsprings will have unless it is for a medical purpose.


My position in Xenotransplantation

I believe that Xenotransplantation can be the answer for the shortage of organs. Many people is waiting for an organ transplant, and many die in the wait. Xenotransplantation could be the solution but there are some risk. In the past there has been risk that seem to be insurmountable, but as technology advanced those risk were not insurmountable anymore.
Xenozoonosis is one of the risk, it is the name given to a disease transmitted from animal to human by transplantation. One of the tests of animal cells or tissues with humans is do it by Allotransplantation. It consist on put some cells or organs from a non-identical donor but same species. With that method Sciences can test xenotransplantation and see how it progress or what is not going well.
Because Xenotransplantation is not a fact yet, there are no laws that protect the hypothetical patient. But an estimated of three to over twenty million anuak is estimated

Sources: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1orGpEW4g7KTcDANGCvBy_iD7riZKmIAy1x1KasQLhS0 Photo by Internet Archive Book Images


What is Xenotransplantation?

To begin I have to define what is xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of the organ, cells or tissues of an animal to a humans.
I choose this application to study because many people needs organ transplant and the fact that scientist are facing problems that in the past seemed to be insurmountable, means we are close to say “Successful xenotransplantation is a fact”, therefore save many or give people a better quality of live.
While I’m searching for more information I’d like to know how the past tests of xenotransplantation have improve, how technology has help with this, and finally, what animal is more similar to human organs.


My Understanding of Genetic Engineering

I know that Genetic Engineering can be helpful and harmful at the same time. When scientists use it to make plants resistant to herbicides or chemicals to kill unwanted plant or insects that eat the vegetation. That can be good, but it damage the earth. It works taking DNA that will be helpful if other animal o plant would have it, and inserting it into the DNA of another animal or plant, to make it resistant against chemicals, delicious, or to make it grow more thus it will give more food. Photo by IAEA Imagebank


Genetic Engineering of Human Organisms is Good for Society

In recent years the government has banned funding for genetically modifying humans, but that hasn’t stopped scientists from pursuing their research with the funding from other places. There are several concerns about genetic engineering. Both moral arguments and those surrounding the fears of minimizing genetic variation and developing a monoculture that might be vulnerable to epidemics have been identified. The bioethical concern surrounding genetic modification raises awareness of scientists crossing the line from science for the good of eliminating disease, to the modification of humans developing something that isn’t even considered human anymore. The argument that minimizing genetic variation will lead to a species vulnerable to extinction from epidemics is supported by the study of agriculture. Neither is inevitable.The benefits of preventing diseases before people are born, requiring tampering with human DNA is worth it. Understanding more about this practice is important for not only congress, but the people. Like so many issues we know little about, gaining knowledge about this will make people more confident and ultimately able to make decisions that are best for the country.

In his paper, The Evolutionary Biological Implications of Human Genetic Engineering, Russell Powell, argues that genetic engineering has only a “negligible impact on human genetic diversity” and that it is “more likely to ensure rather than undermine the health and longevity of the human species”. Learning from experience with GMOs with crops, there are concerns about the lack of diversity in humans if genetic engineering is to be used. Although the paper argues that “the widespread use of GET (genetic engineering technology) is unlikely to reduce HGV (human genetic variability) and that even if it did, this would neither increase the human species’ susceptibility to disease nor prevent it from responding effectively to the shifting demands of selection,” This could be interpreted as the tampering of DNA not leading to the same issues as have occurred with GMOs with agriculture. Powell is convincing in his arguments that genetic engineering in humans is unlikely to cause major problems for the human race.

Modifying the genome of a baby in its mother’s womb is now possible with amazing new technology. Is this a way to eliminate terrible genetic diseases or a way to simply select desirable traits to breed into offspring? In this article, Redesigning nature: to be or not to be?, the authors argue that the practice of genetic engineering is “proving to be successful in fighting a host of genetic diseases, including cancer and has even made headway with HIV.” Since there is already success in this practice, the improved quality of life that results from fighting these diseases is evidence that this practice should be supported. For families with inherited diseases, this practice may be able to prevent suffering in future family members. This may also be a way to treat cancer in ways that we don’t yet know about. Scientists can even grow human organs in animals to transplant in humans. Genetic engineering provides a whole host of opportunities to treat human disease. The benefits for better health far outweighs the concern that adults may choose specific traits for their offspring – creating “designer babies”.

Even though this seems like a great idea, it’s also important that scientists should be careful and not take genetic engineering lightly. With careful consideration and appropriate regulations in place to prevent abusing the system, scientists will not be able to take this practice too far. There should always be variability in each person; this provides necessary protection of the human species. It should be recognized when genetic engineering or other technologies are appropriate to tamper with human DNA.  


1984 The forbidden place

Orwell uses imagery to spread the message of how to be comfortable with being a real woman. Winston and Julia are in the room that they both rented where they cannot be seen or heard by the Party. Julia asked Winston to turn around because she got a surprise for him and when he turned around he thought she would be naked but not instead she was wearing makeup. Julia mentions, “yes, dear, scent, too. And do you know what I will do next? I’m going to get hold of a real woman’s clothing from somewhere and wear it instead of these bloody trousers. I’ll wear silk stockings and high-heeled shoes! In this room, I’m going to be a woman, not a Party comrade” ( Orwell, 142). The author addresses visual imagery in this piece of evidence because since he says, “I’m going to be a woman, not a party comrade”, therefore, in this situation when other woman see Julia wearing makeup,  they will try to adapt that and I think they haven’t done that because they are scared but now after Julia give the example many will follow it and do the same as Julia is executing.  Orwell uses visual imagery as well because in Airstrip One people only use trousers and, there is no difference between a man and a woman but now as Julia start wearing makeup we can identify that she is a real woman. Since Orwell says “I’m going to be a real woman,” makes us think that feminism plays a big role because we know that some people may say that a stereotype of the woman is that all women use makeup, but in this quote, it says another point of view. Here female characters are depicted as weak because they are scared. They cannot wear makeup because it’s against the law and culture. But now Julia talks about how she wishes to change this point view and, she wants to be a real woman. A woman that can do whatever she wants and not ask anyone for permission. Now Orwell depicts Julia as the powerful because now she can do what she wants and not be afraid because both of them knows they are safe even though for a certain amount of time. The tone of this text is bitter because how can a woman is not allowed to wear makeup and is also angry because when the reader reads this they will notice that the message is not to hide what you really want, if you feel comfortable with this,  just do it without asking permission and at the end gives us a sense unfairness.


Genetic Engineering: Researching an Application

 

“Genetic Engineering in Agriculture.” Union of Concerned Scientists. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 June 2017.

According to an article titled ‘Genetic Engineering in Agriculture’ talks about the risks of genetic engineering, for example it causes health risks to the animals that consume the genetically modified crops.

Ronald, Pamela. “Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security.”Genetics. Genetics, 01 May 2011. Web. 04 June 2017.

According to a second article i found titled ‘Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security’ by Pamela Ronald and J. Rine published may 1 2011 states how genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing of global population,changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources.

Foundation, GRACE Communications. “Genetic Engineering.” GRACE Communications Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 June 2017.

According to a website i found called GRACE Communications Foundation talks about “GE Crops”. It says GE plants can have many chemicals and because they become more resistant to pesticides they spray them more but what they don’t know is that it is harmful to our environment and creates greater safety concerns for farmers and the farm workers.

Study.com. Study.com, n.d. Web. 04 June 2017.

According to an article called “What is genetic Engineering ? = Definition, Benefits, and Issues” states how the USA is responsible for producing almost half of genetically engineered crops and how they insert the genes for bacteria into the crops.


Taking a position

Some people believe GM foods are safe, healthy, and sustainable, while others claim the opposite. I think it’s safe because they engineer seeds to give GM foods stronger colors, increase their shelf life, or eliminate seeds. That’s why we can buy seedless watermelons and grapes. Some GM foods also have been engineered to have higher levels of specific nutrients, such as protein, calcium, or folate. Therefore laws don’t have to be passed because it’s not something that’s dangerous. I don’t think anything should be changed because things are been this way for a while and people are accepting it in fact they’re not even considering it so might as well leave it alone.


Researching an applicant

Not long ago, if you were diabetic, the insulin your doctor prescribed would have come from a pig. If you required human growth hormone, it would have come from human cadavers, a source that is costly, not to mention a little creepy. Now, these and other medicines can be made by specially-modified bacteria, called transgenic bacteria. These single-celled organisms have foreign genes alongside their own DNA. They live and reproduce like ordinary bacteria, but they also do a bit of extra duty, and produce human proteins for medicines and vaccines.

Transgenic (GM) plants are those that have been genetically modified using recombinant DNA technology. This may be to express a gene that is not native to the plant or to modify endogenous genes. The protein encoded by the gene will confer a particular trait or characteristic to that plant. The technology can be utilized in a number of ways, for example to engineer resistance to abiotic stresses, such as drought, extreme temperature or salinity, and biotic stresses, such as insects and pathogens, that would normally prove detrimental to plant growth or survival. The technology can also be used to improve the nutritional content of the plant, an application that could be of particular use in the developing world.


Genetic Engineered Foods

The purpose of Gmo’s in foods were originally, and still is, the purpose to keep pesticides out of these GMO induced produce. This is beneficial because instead of using pesticides on our fruits and vegetables, we can use gmo’s so it can’t affect our bodies the way that pesticides does. This is a positive thing that can make our foods also grow in areas that they can’t grow usually. In theory, this could be something that can help us fight world hunger. Now this process does have its down sides to it. GMO induced crops can spread its modified pollen to other natural or organic produce and alter their genes. This is bad because the original breed can be altered and can have negative effects on the genetic tree. It can also take a toll in the environment. The have herbicides, which are harmful to animal such as “birds, insects, amphibians, marine ecosystems, and soil organisms”. On the legal aspect, GMO’s aren’t considered as something potentially harmful to us as human beings. The government doesn’t have to be notified if foods have GMOs in them. It’s also unethical to produce produce that is GMO induced in countries that have a high yield, because it does not decrease the yield. (Smith, Jeffrey. “10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs.” Institute for Responsible Technology. N.p., 15 Jan. 2017. Web. 24 May 2017.)


Genetic Engineered Foods

  1. Genetic Engineered Foods are foods that have been genetically modified to create more supply of food because the demand for food is high since we need to be able to feed at least everyone around the whole hemisphere.
  2. I chose this application because I want to investigate the effects of GMO’s on the human body. It is something significant because we all eat foods so GMO’s can affect us.
  3. I hope to answer, What are the effects of GMO’s on the human body? What are the most commonly used GMO’s? Which foods typically contain GMO’s?


Research

Difficult part for me couldnt complete


Genetically modified food

Genetically modified food is great for us because it has better food at a lower price. for example have you ever gone to a store and seen the organic food costing more than genetically modified food and the reason for that is because genetically modified food is made at a more affordable price. According to a article by UC Santa Cruz says that “genetic engineering of plant has the potential to provide edible plant that could be used to immunize individuals against a wide variety of infectious diseases ranging from cholera to potential AIDS” this shows that genetically modified food is great for us.


Argument Comments on Genetic Engineering

Answering to:

“Why I say yes to Genetics in Agriculture?”

Dear William,

I do really agree with you that genetics in our foods is good thing, one reason I say that is because it made food more easier for people to get there hands on food. It’s true, that our population is growing so much and so fast and it made food less scarce for us. Another reason why I agree with you is because like you said it’s easier and cheaper it would be a whole expensive if we had to plant more and more food for a growing population.

Answering to:

Dear Mariah,

“Taking a position on GMOs.”

I am shocked with your post, “Taking a Position on GMOs”, because before reading this letter I thought GMOs were safe. I had read many positive things about GMOs, like, it’s easier and cheaper to make more food for growing population than to plant a lot more crops. Also, I had heard that they were safe but I guess it was an article or it was a person that was agreeing with GMOs because they did not write down the negative affects about them. After reading your post I feel like I wouldn’t be able to eat a genetically modified organism like, food.


Stance on Human Cloning

Human cloning… not such a good idea. I’m not completely saying no to it, but I do not feel the need for human cloning. The thought is fascinating and scientists can study cloning but to an extent. We have to consider those around us because society is not ready, not accepting human cloning.

Shortly after “Dolly” a sheep that had been cloned successfully, controversies arose about the possibility of cloning humans. But all hopes were cut short. In 1997, Bill Clinton’s letter to Congress: Cloning Prohibition Act addresses, “The Commission concluded that at this time ‘it is morally unacceptable for anyone in the public or private sector, whether in a research or clinical setting, to attempt to create a child using somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning.’” Though it did not stop people from cloning for other purposes beside humans, it claims that it is not morally accepted. Studies should be conducted and cloning is something that should be know about.

However, cloning is not necessary, sure someone would want to get a clone of someone who passes away, but they would have the Genet footprint, not the that persons same thoughts or experiences. “Cult Boasts: We’ll Clone Couple’s Dead Daughter” by Bill Hoffmann writes, “The tot’s parents, identified only as an American couple, have paid the oddball Rael cult $500,000 to clone their daughter, who perished in what they describe as ‘a medical accident.’” The wealthy are capable of having these opportunities because they have money and are willing to spend it. These possibilities are not seen for the lower or middle class. Another point would be to give women who cannot bear children, the chance to actually have one. Yet it would look exactly like only one of the parents, because it is as if only a single parent’s DNA is being used.

To add on to the troubles in the article “10 Reasons Why Human Cloning is Bad for Society at Large” by Deeksha Rawat she claims, “If human cloning is carried out, it may well lead to uncontrolled results, abnormal development, genetic damage, malformation and diseases in the clone. Even if cloning is successful, the life of the clone will probably be a drastic one with a much shorter span.” This demonstrated the negative outcomes of cloning being unsuccessful. If something goes majorly wrong, how do we know that it can be stopped or controlled. She also brings up another really important point of “mocking the role of God.” People have strong beliefs and that should not be taken away, it is their hope, even if others don’t believe in it. Society will view scientists as trying to be gods with human cloning.

Scientists should be able to study cloning, as for it relating to humans it should be only to learn and not really impact society. It should be on the scientists own money (because cloning is very expensive) and have regulations/oversight in order to not let them overstep their bounds. Human cloning will only be seen as a negative thing if no new claims or pros are coming from people supporting human cloning. In all, I believe human cloning should be an option to scientists as long as they are being looked over and if not, to not have cloning because it will only harm society, and there is no need to it. It is perhaps in a distant future but as for now, let us not burden society more.

 

Citations

Clinton, Bill. “President’s Letter to Congress: Cloning Prohibiton Act.” Cloning Prohibiton Act. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 June 2017.

Hoffmann, Bill. “CULT BOASTS: WE’LL CLONE COUPLE’S DEAD DAUGHTER.” New York Post. New York Post, 12 Oct. 2000. Web. 02 June 2017.

Rawat, Deeksha. “10 Reasons Why Human Cloning Is Bad for Society at Large.” Listontap. Listontap, 29 May 2017. Web. 02 June 2017.


Against Genetic medicine therapy?

Are you with or against genetically modifying the human person’s DNA to make sure the next person is okay?  The course of probably about 4 hours trying to figure out if I am against or with genetically modifying someone DNA to medically to save another person’s life I figured that in order to save someone you need to rest somebody else’s life that is always been the opportunity cost of things and this is dangerous because we want to say both people but sometimes one organism is I’m not going to say meant to die but who is to say the other person is meant to live  I figured I can only take a neutral stance because if I was in somebody shoes who needed something from somebody else and move it to modify the DNA I would want that but if I was the person who was going to die anyway and rejected a doctor’s protocol I would feel sad I would feel a type of way but that’s that shouldn’t be my call if somebody needs it then what am I to do this is a  controversy I don’t know whose side I’m on what about you?


Letter About GMOs

Dear Fellow Student’s,

 

 

I am 100% against GMO in crops mainly because it causes so many negative effects on the human body. Based on my research there is nothing that’s even an inch of convincing that GMO in crops would be a good thing. I feel that a law does need to be passed in order to stop GMOs, look at the number of people affected by GMO in crops and tell me if that number is a good thing. You never you can be one of the many victims. Of course, I think that someone needs to step up and stop GMO’s, of no one will stop it, the number people affected by it will increase rapidly. GMO’s started being sold in grocery stores in 1994, and technology has come a long way. Think about the more GMOs in crops will continue the more people will be hurt, specifically inside their bodies while technology will continue to improve. According to GMO answers it says, “Between 2008 and 2012 the cost of producing GMO products rounds up to 136 million” there is so much money and time getting put into GMOs in crops and the end result is someone’s ecosystem being at risk or having an allergic reaction. People’s life at risk is my main argument and that is exactly why GMOs in crops has to be stopped immediately.

 

Sincerely, A Caring Student

 


Genetic Engineering: Choosing an Application

I chose the application of medicine.  I selected this application because I find it very interesting that doctors are able to insert healthy genes into a living person.  Also, I nearly don’t believe a such thing is possible to do.  

 

  1. How are healthier genes inserted into a living person?
  2. When was this first experimented?
  3. Do people commonly attend gene therapy?


Genetic Engineering: A Discussion

https://www.youthvoices.live/2017/06/01/why-i-say-yes-to-genetics-in-agriculture/

I don’t think naturally that can be good for the human body to take in chemical injected fruits and   

vegetables to make them larger.  

 

https://www.youthvoices.live/2017/06/01/genetic-engineering-7/

DNA is found in literally every little thing and the cool part is nobody has the same DNA set up.


Genetic Engineering: researching applications

Genetic engineering plays a big role when it comes to the medical field.  Engineers have been experimenting on plants to produce larger amounts of hormones, vaccines, medicinal drugs, and enzymes.  All in all they are trying to make ways to produce healthier individuals.  The upside to gene therapy is that it helps treat cancer and genetic conditions. Also helps in treating several other diseases such as cardiac conditions, ALS, Huntington’s disease, fibrosis, and a few other conditions can be cured by gene therapy.  Now, the downside to gene therapy is that if there is some type of mutation this can harm a human more than expected.  Also it can create new allergies that you never had and some say it’s modifying god’s creations which he did not want. Lastly in human cloning can tamper with the diversity of human genetics. Most of people worries come from what happens if the gene therapy fails and something tragic occurs.  Some worries also are has this ever been successful, or even don’t belive genes can be physically changed. Ethically lowered income people are not happy with this experiment because they believe the study will take money from them reducing their insurance.  Depending on the complexity and nature of the test, genetic testing can range anywhere from $100-$2,000.


Genetic Engineering:taking a position

In the circumstances of genetic engineering in medicine I do not support this practice because it is not ethical to change oneself  through science that is not a hundred percent trustworthy.  Secondly, I don’t support this practice for a few reasons. First I don’t believe that anyone should try such a drastic measure there are many risks being taken with your health.  If something was to go wrong in gene therapy it can truly harm a person more than before.  Lastly, I just flat out don’t think that this is possible to change someone’s appearance but I do believe they help fight off diseases. I strongly feel laws need to be passed to prohibit unlicensed physicians from studying this practice because people can seriously be hurt.  Finally, I believe that a numerous amount of research needs to be done and experiments need to be a hundred percent before implementing freely to our people.


Genetic Engineering- Agriculture

The application of genetic engineering that i chose was Agriculture.

I chose agriculture because I want to find out how our food is genetically modified.

The 3 questions :

How are our vegetables and fruits genetically modified?

Do they really reduce pesticides from the food?

Where do they genetically modify food?


Why I say yes to Genetics in Agriculture?

Genetics have helped millions and millions of people over the world, weather it is genetic in food or technology genetics just help in all type of way and we should use it to the best of our knowledge. Genetics in food help the food grow faster and bigger due to chemicals that have to be injected or sprayed on, the food is good but we don’t know the real outcome in genetics in agriculture. GMO foods is cheap and easy to produce. Some benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced costs for food or drug production, reduced need for pesticides, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security, and medical benefits to the world’s growing population.


Cloning argument

I do support cloning to a certain extent. I say to a certain extent because it can be very useful when it comes to medicine  but at the same time it can be very dangerous when cloning mammals. There should be laws passed to limit the amount of times you can clone something because  if you clone something too many times you can end up hurting the original copy. I think before this  can be Implemented when should do more research and find out more side effects to this.

Dear, Students

I think we should Implement cloning because it is very effective. It is very efficient we can use this in many different ways. For example if we implement cloning we would be able to make  more medicine for people who need things such as insulin or even use it to help cure cancer. If we use cloning to clone animals we would be able to make more  meats such as cows,pigs, and chicken for food. Farmers would be able to produce more meats at a higher and much safer way rather than forcing cows and other animals to breed which can take up to 283 days. Cloning can also be used for crops. We would be able to make much more crops in a more timely manner. These crops can be used for all type of things. With cloning we can make america a more efficient country  and that’s why  I believe we should implement cloning in America.

Sincerely, Ahmir from Fremont high


Genetics in Agriculture

Genetics in Agriculture are helpful to the people around the world because we use genetics to make our food grow faster and bigger. “Crops developed by genetic engineering can not only be used to enhance yields and nutritional quality but also for increased tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses.” (Asia Datta) 8/16/13

Pros – “1) higher crop yields 2) more nutritious food 3) crops can be grown in harsh environments 4) they are more resistant to pests thus eliminating the use of potentially hazardous pesticides 5) undesirable characteristics can be removed 6) food can have a better flavour and a longer shelf life and 7) they can also be used as a cheap source of medicine.” (Paul Arnold) 3/6/17

Cons – “A virus is being used as a vector to get the genes inside, and some fear that even though the virulence factors have been silenced, danger is still at hand. There’s also a risk that a gene could land in a spot other than where you want it and cause harm by being expressed in unusual ways.” (Paul Arnold) 3/6/17

GMO(Genetically modified Organisms) A GMO, or genetically modified organism, is a plant, animal, microorganism or other organism whose genetic makeup has been modified using recombinant DNA methods (also called gene splicing), gene modification or transgenic technology. Sixty-four countries around the world, including Australia, Japan, and all of the countries in the European Union, require genetically modified foods to be labelled 1. While a 2015 ABC News survey found that 93% of Americans believe genetically modified foods should be labelled, GMOs are not required to be labelled in the U.S. and Canada 2.

Genetically engineered crops can potentially cause environmental problems that result directly from the engineered traits. For instance, an engineered gene may cause a GE crop (or a wild relative of that crop) to become invasive or toxic to wildlife.
But the most damaging impact of GE in agriculture so far is the phenomenon of pesticide resistance. Millions of acres of U.S. farmland are now infested by weeds that have become resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. Overuse of Monsanto’s “Roundup Ready” trait, which is engineered to tolerate the herbicide, has promoted the accelerated development of resistance in several weed species.


Clone sources

 

https://www.genome.gov/25020028/cloning-fact-sheet/:

 

There are 3 different types of cloning.gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is the process of cloning DNA to create a different organism. Therapeutic cloning is making another copy of of cells for medicine. And finally, reproductive cloning is the process of cloning animals. Scientist have been cloning animals for the past 50 years.We still haven’t learn how to clone humans today. When cloning  animals happen they don’t always look identical because the environment plays a huge role on the animal. If we can clone animals then we would be able to produce more medicine. The cons of cloning animals is that  the low efficiency rate is not worth producing. There is a low opportunity cost of cloning animals.The pros of Therapeutic cloning are that we are able to clone all type of cells. The cons of  this type of cloning is that its going to be hard to tell the difference between good cells and bad cells.This is a helpful source because it is reliable and it gives you plenty of useful information. The goal of this source is to inform you the different types of cloning. This source helps shape my argument by telling me the different types of cloning and what they used for.  It also tells me the pros and cons of the different types of cloning.

 

 

https://www.britannica.com/science/cloning:

 

In this source it tells you what cloning is. It gives multiple examples of cloning done over the years for example frogs, salamanders,and sheep. It also talks about reproductive cloning which mean they take an Embryo and put it in a uterus. They get into the success  rate of cloning  and also some of the famous people who were able to successfully clone an organism. Another  thing that they talk is Therapeutic  cloning as well. Finally they tell you the dangers of reproductive  cloning such life loss and failure in attempting to clone  things. This is a useful source because it goes in depth of  cloning that has to do with humans and animals more than medicine. It also shows you that cloning really is possible by giving multiple examples of cloning in the past. I can use this source in my argument by  using it as evidence.

 

 

http://tashii.weebly.com/history-and-the-importance-of-cloning.html:

 

In this source they mostly talk about the reasons why it is good to clone things.  They also  give a brief summary behind cloning and who first started and why. This a helpful source because it names multiple reasons why cloning can be useful r helpful. This is a reliable source because it cites all its sources.

 

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-111930/Dangers-human-clones.html:

In this source they tell you the reasons why cloning is bad. They say that clonign can lead to many bad things such deformed organs,damaged immune system, or even death. The source really talks about how countries  are coming together to ban cloning because of these negatives side effects or possibilities. I can use this source as a counterargument after reading this  I started to second guess my strong opinion  for cloning because In the other sources they don’t really talk about those kind of things.


Application in Agriculture

A. Application in Agriculture

B. I chose this application because this has to do with food and crops that people are eating. I think this is important because because people deserve to know the things that are being put into their bodies when they eat.

C. Why are things put into are foods? Why don’t they tell us how they make and mess around with the crops? Are those materials they use healthy for us or no?


Annotated Bibliographies – Medical

The meaning of Annotated Bibliographies is a different type of ways to do a research with a different type of cited ways. To use helpful research and valid ones it could come from books, journals and website using MLA, authors names and date publish etc. There has been the help of medical help at homes and at clinics where people are able to do it. Not everybody is been selected but it depend on what they ask for will depend if you are been selected and eligible for it. There are people out there they are trying to change the world and trying to learn new things and work ad help the community. There should be more help for the community at home or at the clinic. The pros and c0ns are that there is enough of help people with problems and help is not giving to them which they are not helping with their sickness. Now there are more people who are trying to change the community and they will help people who need help. There is a program call NDP and PCMH which is hard to get in. in the NDP is easy to work with and to get in get the hang of it but when it was done and done with the terms it moves on to the PCMH which is more complicated. There are things that are trying to stop from happening but there are more people who are working together and trying to make it work. It’s hard to make it but it’s worth to help the community and help the people who need help at home or at the clinic.  http://www.annfammed.org/content/7/3/254.full.pdf+html 


Taking a Position with GMOs

Dear GMOs,

From all the research I have done, there are still many things that are mysterious with this topic. From the four articles I have found, they all say that there is no real proof or evidence that connects to the risk in health in consuming GMOs. In fact, there has been studies shown that GMOs could reduce need of pesticides, reduce greenhouse emission, manipulate food into becoming more delicious/longer lasting and increase production of food and ship them to starving third world countries. There are millions upon millions of food that have GMO products being given out for sale, and people haven’t been getting sick so you would think that everything would be alright? But it’s not, GMOs are genetically modified foods that are made by man, and shouldn’t be used so many times. You should be able to plant fresh food, made with using seeds and not spraying chemicals in them so other animals would ruin the stock. In an article called “The Good, Bad and Ugly about GMOs”, it tells how in Europe, there was a case where GMOs had harmed the livestock. Dr. Arpad Pusztai went to public and explained his findings about genetically modified potatoes. “When Pusztai fed rats genetically modified (GM) potatoes to produce a supposedly safe insecticide called the GNA lectin, all the animals showed pre-cancerous cell growths, smaller brains, livers and testicles, partially atrophied livers, and damaged to the immune system–with most changes appearing after just 10 days.” This shows that when the doctor experimented on these mice with genetically modified potatoes, which were suppose to be safe to consume, they had developed many severe complications and problems that affected their bodies in a 2 weeks span. We use rats as test subjects as a way to see if it’s harmful to humans, and this proves that there is something wrong that is being put into our foods that would make us sick. Still, scientists would write that they, “found no substantiated evidence that foods from GE crops were less safe than foods from non-GE crops.” in an article called “GMO safety debate is over”. Even when these scientists allowed all comments to be answered and that they would give it much thought, they still would say it couldn’t because of GMOs, that there was not enough proof in how it would connect to cancer, kidney disease, diabetes and obesity. This topic is very interesting on how there seems to be no real data on how GMOs are safe or not to be consumed, but in my personal opinion, I believe it is harmful to humans. A solution for this would be having food become organic again, and not spray and create any more modified foods.


Researching GMOs

In an article called “GMO Facts”. GMO stands for genetically modified organisms, which means that they use genetic makeup using specific DNA from plants and animals They would cut out the parts that they wanted, and put it inside the organism that they want to make that gene stand out. This is how they are able to crossbreed with the food you want and make even more of that same exact food. There are nations who do not agree that GMOs are safe to consume, but the United States and Canada think they are based on studies and sell food products with genetic engineering. The article tells that they usually put the GMO label on their products and you would mostly find them in packaged foods.

“GMO Safety Debate is Over” tells readers about how there was a debate with scientists involved with genetic engineering food and crops and said there were still no evidence connecting to having health problems with GMOs being consumed. Throughout the entire conversation, the scientists would still say that there was no connection to GMOs that cause cancer, kidney disease, diabetes and obesity. There simply isn’t enough evidence to put it against GMOs

In an article called “GMOs Are Safe, But Don’t Always Deliver on Promises”, it tells readers how farmers started off growing GMO crops and how it had helped with pest problems along with making more food. There’s an anti-GMO group called Food & Water Watch that has accused some members in the committee from the National Academy of Science that they were being funded from biotech companies, or having ties from those industries that made them write the report. The report answered most questions regarding GMOs, but in the end there are no real solid evidence that connects to GMOs being riskful.

“The Good, Bad, and Ugly about GMOs” tells us how GMOs have good qualities in them, like they could reduce the spray of pesticides provide more food for third world countries. There was a disaster that happened in Europe that involved genetically modified potatoes and how the animals have shown many signs of precancerous cell growth, smaller brains, liver and testicles and damage to the immune system. If you want to have foods that don’t contain any GMOs and sprays added to them, you could pick organic foods since they do not allow GMOs to be anywhere near them. You could also check the ingredient section on your food to see if there are any corn based products like soy.


Genetic Engineering: Taking a Position

Arguably, technology has changed various aspects of human activities. As a matter of fact, many beliefs that technologies have brought a lot of developments that are more applicable and influential to human beings. Cloning and genetic engineering are among the many developments issues brought by technology. Many view that the development of genetic engineering and cloning holds the potential to solve several humankind problems. On the other hand, the development of these aspects is seen as the potential that is building and developing unchecked dangers. Hence, these views present both the positive and negative impacts of genetic engineering as a method of improving the circumstance of humans. Generally, cloning and genetic engineering opens an entire realm of issues related to biology, allowing scientists to be in a position of helping human beings, but these issues are not without negative impacts on humans.

Cloning and genetic engineering have improved and solved various human circumstances n the world today. In fact, cloning finds many of its application in amplification of DNA, genetic fingerprinting, as well as modification of genetic makeup in humans. As a matter of fact, cloning through genetic makeup leads to introduction of positive traits in humans, and the elimination of undesirable traits. Perhaps, cloning and genetic engineering has improved and solved the life of humans through human organs development; hence, the life’s of people has been made safer and longer. One of the arguments for cloning is that it helps in organ replacement. Whereby, vital human organs in the human body are cloned to serve as backup operating system in the body of human beings. The presence of cloning is one of the lifesavers, for example, when some of the body organs such as heart and kidney fails, it can be replaced through cloning of the body organ.


Genetic Engineering: Researching an Application

The genetic engineering application I decided to use was cloning. The way this works is basically we breed certain animals with certain genes and DNA in order to get a product or result that we desire. Something I learned from reading about this is that it is used on companion animals, wild animals, farm animals and experimental animals. Some cons that come with cloning are that you would need a multitude of animals to accomplish it. Another potential con could be that we could have unnecessary duplicates.  The pros of this are that we would get the products that we need and that we are able to develop and explore more with our abilities to do such things. Welfare for animals is an issue, if we have too many animal duplicates then we will have potential unexpected changes of shifts in our numbers. A shift we may not even need. Some ethical problems this brings up are intellectual property, and patenting of created animals and/or the techniques used to create them.


Introduction into Engineering

At first I did not really have a understanding of what Genetic Engineering was but after the watching  Introduction to Genetic Engineering I have a better understanding then I had before. I know that many tools are used when you are working with things.  I have a understanding that you use the DNA from a organism and put it to pass on a trait. I did not know that you can also use genetic Engineering on food and also on things that can help people with diabetes. My gut reaction to watching the videos is that it’s awesome that you can do so many things with the DNA of humans and food anything. Technology is important becuase many things can come from using different tools and materials.


What do you stand for? Determine a topic to raise your voice.

Who that has power in the economy cares for children in poverty?

            Why do children have to worry about not knowing where they will be staying after school?

             How did poverty become a school problem ?

              What can schools do to help with students that’s living in poverty in the Bay Area?

              

 

  1. Who that has power in the economy cares for children in poverty?   Why do children have to worry about not knowing where they will be staying after school? How did poverty become a school problem ?  What can schools do to help with students that’s living in poverty in the Bay Area?
  2. What matter to me is the poor and how we are treated throughout the community and the economy. I feel like we are treated as if we are less in this society compares to the other social classes. What is important to my everyday life is education and my peers well being. Issues like with Trump and his wife getting into an altercation charges me up when they show that on the news when we have youth who are being killed, we got youth that are homeless, and youth that are dropping out of school at all grades, and that’s not being mentioned. It’s like all the effects of poverty are being covered up by the press with drama. Poverty affecting the youth behavior and academic skills should be talked about and brought up throughout the press.
  3. The topic I explored was poverty and the affects it has on K-12 students. What I found about this topic throughout research is that poverty has a negative impact on academic success. One study by Sum and Fogg found that students living in poverty ranked in the 19 th percentile on state tests while wealthier students are in the 66 th percentile (Sum and Fog 3). This means that students that live in poverty aren’t doing as well in school as the average student who don’t live with the problem of poverty. This also mean that students who are living in poverty are three or more times behind a student, who doesn’t live in poverty, in school!
  4. These are the main issues that I care about the most. I came to this issue because I had to think about what’s going on in my community, how are my peers affected and what can I do to bring some type of major awareness to this problem. What I learned from this topic is that we that live in poverty needs the extra help in school and outside of school for us to become cable of taking care of our self in the real world and we only can get the help from community leaders and youth programs such as the police force, fire department, school districts, and even the music industry. I would like to learn about more programs that help kids with such needs.


Genetic Engineering

Simply fascinating. Imagine having full control of the genes of your children, different species to limit or give them characteristics you desire. That is Genetic Engineering.

“Genetically Engineering Almost Anything” written by Eleanor Nelsen and Tim De Chant opened my eyes to the world of geneticists. Think about it, Esvelt and Caplan are creating possibilities that could lead to genetically modify mosquitoes to either be less susceptible to malaria or have this endonucleas that could change the gene drive. The gene drive can be used to override the 50-50 chance of the gene being passed down and possibly eradicate malaria with a 100%. Crazy, but is it safe? These geneticists want to bring it to the public to see if there is acceptance of these studies. People are worried of the safety if it is put into the wild environment. Yet malaria medicines and vaccines are not helping as much. It is developing more quickly and in the article it states, “Church says. ‘We have a population of 7 billion people. You have to deal with the environmental consequences of that.’” If change is to happen, let’s start now.


Choosing an Application

The application I chose to do for genetic engineering is genetically modified foods (GMOs). I chose this topic because I was always interested in how people were able to improve food into making them look pretty, have them taste the same if not better and make so many using their DNA. Three questions I hope to answer would be if there are food that didn’t turn out the way they wanted it to, does genetic engineering food make them grow faster and do they taste different than how food is regularly grown.


Genetic Engineering: Taking a position

Genetic Engineering in agriculture is the process of manipulating an organism’s genetic material—including genes from other species—in an effort to produce desired traits. I stand for genetic engineering in agriculture because there are many pros people should consider positive such as having plants improve resistance against plant disease or drought, crops with increased nutrient levels, and rapidly improve crop production.

Having plants become resistant to plant diseases or drought are good effects of genetic engineering because there will be more plants that can be preserved, and taken care of. Taking care of these plants/ crops will help the economy because money will go around to those who profit and buy the crops. Also, having these plants resistant from droughts will help society as a whole because people wouldn’t be hungry, since there will be crops left to eat. According to the Union of Concerned Scientist, they stated that having crops tolerate droughts, produce more useful chemicals and they further on reduce the use of pesticide. Crops will also increase the nutrient levels, which will further on benefit people because they will be healthy. Furthermore, by quickly enhancing crop production, businesses will prosper because they will have surpluses. Also, because of the surplus, foods/ crops will be accessible for people to eat it.  

A law implementation is required for genetic engineering in agriculture to be regulated. Plant GMOs are regulated by the US Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service under the Plant Protection Act. GMOs in food, drugs, and biological products are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act. The United States does not have any federal legislation that is specific to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rather, GMOs are regulated consistent to health, safety, and environmental legislation governing certain products. Before this application is freely implemented, I believe more research should be done on the effects of specific genes because it has been limited, and tightly controlled by the industry.


Human Cloning

I’ve seen it on TV, but it’s all in the “future” and science fiction. Human cloning will be my focus. It intrigues me because I know it is being done to animals. I want to know more about it happening (if ever) to humans. Like if this were to happen, what will people’s opinions be about it. The thought itself is scary, but at the same time it’s like having a twin brother. Though that itself sounds somewhat creepy.

But I do have to ask:

Why would people want to clone another human? If the clone were to be successful, will it have the same rights are humans? Would people accept it and who is it hurting if there is cloning? The clones themselves? Society?

 


Pro, GloFish


    Genetic engineering is the manipulation of a trait in an organism and modifying its DNA to have a certain characteristic. Genetic engineering is a recent discovery made by a company named Genentech, in 1976. This shows that genetic engineering is still at its beginning stage, but scientist have been able to do so much with this new technology in so little time. One of the inventions they did during the time of exploring this new discovery was fluorescent fish. GloFish were first launched back in 2003 and where a big hit, the people loved it. I believe GloFish is a positive application and should be able to be implemented because it is safe to the environment and safe for the fish itself, it’s used to find polluted areas and polluted organs in our body, and people love to keep them as pets.

    One of the reasons why I feel this application should be implemented is because making these genetically modified fish is safe for the environment and safe for the fish itself. When this application was first released there were many reports saying that this would be bad for the ocean and bad for the fish health. One of the rumors that were spreading after the launch of these fish was that they inject the fish and dyed them with the coloring to make them glow. This has been proven wrong, before the fish is born they inject the embryo with the specific trait. Once in the embryo it becomes part of the DNA of the fish just like the skin of it, it becomes part of it and is born with this trait. When people get bored of fish or don’t want them anymore the first thing they will do is flush them down the drain and these fishes go into the ocean. Many people were concerned for a genetically modified fish going into the ocean affecting many of the fishes in the nearby waters. Later reports though have said that this is not true. These fishes cause no harm because they have no way of surviving in the ocean full of predators when it’s constantly glowing, it would be really hard for these fishes to hide.

The second why I believe these fish should be implemented is because it helps our health. The reason why these fish were created in the first place was because it was helping scientist determine polluted areas in the water. Also, these fish were being used to see where and how pollution affects us. Scientist first started with first creating these fluorescent fish, using zebra fishes. The way it works is exposing these fishes to different type of pollutions, once these fishes are have absorbed the pollution the organs that have been affected, glows. This is also how they detected the polluted areas of water in the ocea. This shows that this application is helpful not just to the environment but also to the health of human beings.

My last reason why this application should be implicated is because people love them as pets. These modified fish are called “design fish.” Before the launching of GloFish, scientist thought this would be a great thing for the public. Then in 2003 this application was first launched for the public. The care of a fluorescent fish is the same as a normal fish but with the better exception that the modified fish glow. Many of these fishes are used in at home aquariums and offices. These fish attract especially young kids that love the different type of color fishes because it is entertaining to the eyes.

Although, many would claim that making these glow would make it hard for them to survive in the ocean once they get thrown down the drain. However, normal fish wouldn’t survive much time either, once they are in the ocean they are very small surrounded with big predators. Fluorescent fish are the same as normal fish but the only difference is that one of them glows.


Research on Fluorescent Fish

My Annotated Bibliography:

 

“Fish Glow Green After Genetic Engineering”

Glow in the dark fish has been beneficial in the world of science. One of the things they have been used for is to track down what parts of your body get affected by pollutants. Pollutants come from many chemicals in things like plastic which can cause illnesses in humans and also animals. Scientist have always known that these pollutants harmed us but never knew exactly where it damaged us. What a group of scientist did was they used a genetic engineered fishes to track down the endocrine – disrupting chemical and where they in our body they affected us. How this process worked was, the fish got exposed to these chemicals, once inside the body of the fish, that specific part of the body that got affected by the disrupting chemicals it would glow up. Once the fish was glowing they were able to identify where these pollutants were harming the fish.

Handwerk, Brian. “Fish Glow Green After Genetic Engineering.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 16 May 2017. Web. 25 May 2017.

 

“Some worry GloFish not such a bright idea”

Once owners of GloFish don’t want to take care of them or don’t want these pets anymore they flush them down the drain and make their way into the ocean. According to this article this can be bad for them because once they are in the ocean they are surrounded by many predictors, there fluorescent colors make it hard for them to survive. It will be hard for them to hide from predators or even look for food. The Zebrafish, which is one of the genetic engineered fish, comes from Asia where the waters are warm but then are taken to the US where the waters are cold and these fish cannot survive in these conditions. Not also does this affect them themselves but it can also affect their descendants coming after them. During offspring, GloFish, get together with a fish native from that place, this can affect their babies genes.  The genes of the GloFish can take many generations to finally leave their bodies.

Appel, Adrianne. “Some Worry GloFish Not Such a Bright Idea.” The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company, 08 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 May 2017.

 

“What are GloFish?”

When GloFish were first being made they were going to be used to help identify where the polluted areas where in the ocean. They were later started to be made for the decoration for people. When it first launched in 2003, they were a big hit, and people would start to buy them for the entertainment of their eyes. California, though, was the only state that had banned it because of the negative reports it had. One of the reports was that the fish could affect the waters and the animals when the owners release the fish into the sea. All of the negative reports though have been proven wrong because GloFish do not survive long in the ocean full of predators. In 2015 California removed the policy of banning these fiches, and residents in CA were able to buy and keep them.  One aquarium owner says that keeping these fishes isn’t just decoration, that it’s important to know the history and know about these fishes. Also, the care of these fish is also the same as a normal fish. Having genetically modified fish does not mean not having to take care of them, they should be taken care of just like any other animal.

McCarthy, Carol. “What Are GloFish?” PetMD. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2017.

 

“Ethics of GloFish, Genetically Modified Neon Fish”

MAny people love Genetically modified fish are or like some might call it “design fish.” These fish are specifically designed to carry the trait that makes them glow. The way this works is, when a fish is still in its embryo scientist inject them with the fluorescent trait. Once this trait in the egg it’s mixes with the DNA with the fish and it becomes part of the fish just like any other trait. Making the fluorescent fish glow.

Michel, Eric. “Ethics of GloFish, Genetically Modified Neon Fish.” Reef Blog. N.p., 08 Dec. 2010. Web. 29 May 2017.


My Stance on Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy is one of the many forms of applications of Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering is the act of enhancing on the trait in a living organism by modifying the genetic code. For example, we can enhance vegetation such as watermelon to be bigger or spinach lasting longer. As for Gene Therapy, it is instead focused on repairing and replacing the cells that cause a defect in the human body, defects such as diseases hurting the body or down syndrome.The idea of being able to cure many of diseases that are hurting or killing many people would be so ideal but with such great power comes with a risk. There is no easy process when it comes to gene therapy because of the fact that it requires so much precision. If new genes are not put in the proper place disasters like a tumor growing could happen. This treatment is still so new so it’s tough to foresee possible danger that may arise, although I may give it a chance if more and more research and trials continue to in this.

If there was a way to also make this treatment more affordable it would be able to save and cure more lives because at the moment it seems that only the rich will be able to get ahold of this treatment since this treatment cost so much money. In 2012 the first gene therapy was approved was Glybera and its price point was 1.4 million dollars which shocked many people because not many people would be able to afford a price point like that. Not only would this mean that only wealthy people can afford this treatment but if we put the power to cure diseases and disabilities and combined it with the power to enhance human quality it means that the government can get a hold of this power. With the power of science, we can have the power if done successful create an army of superhumans that surpass the average human limitation. Where do we draw the line to a power such as that? I think if we continue on with using gene therapy and genetic engineering there should be limitations on what you can do to control the human body. We already have regulations in place from the federal agencies monitoring gene therapy and its trials which are good but we need to make sure the federal government does not get greedy and use this treatment as a way to make strengthing humans instead of saving them.

In 2012 the first gene therapy was approved was Glybera and its price point was 1.4 million dollars which shocked many people because not many people would be able to afford a price point like that. Not only would this mean that only wealthy people can afford this treatment but if we put the power to cure diseases and disabilities and combined it with the power to enhance human quality it means that the government can get a hold of this power. With the power of science, we can have the power if done successful create an army of superhumans that surpass the average human limitation. Where do we draw the line to a power such as that? I think if we continue on with using gene therapy and genetic engineering there should be limitations on what you can do to control the human body. We already have regulations in place from the federal agencies monitoring gene therapy and its trials, such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that makes sure to monitor all gene therapy products and the National Insitute of Health (NIH) that focus on the safety of the gene therapy trials. We need to make sure the federal government does not get greedy and use this treatment as a way to make strengthing humans instead of saving them.

With the power of science, we can have the power if done successful create an army of superhumans that surpass the average human limitation. Where do we draw the line to a power such as that? I think if we continue on with using gene therapy and genetic engineering there should be limitations on what you can do to control the human body. We already have regulations in place from the federal agencies monitoring gene therapy and its trials which are good but we need to make sure the federal government does not get greedy and use this treatment as a way to make strengthing humans instead of saving them. Taken, Gene Therapy can be proven to be essential in saving the lives on those dying from diseases or facing disabilities that limit their life and opportunities. It’s a great chance to aid others as long as we can find a way to make this procedure more accessible then it would be life changing.

Taken, Gene Therapy can be proven to be essential in saving the lives on those dying from diseases or facing disabilities that limit their life and opportunities. It’s a great chance to aid others as long as we can find a way to make this procedure more accessible then it would be life changing. When stepping into the realm of human modification I think we should be very careful and not be swayed from the true goal of gene therapy which is to repair the function in the human body that is not acting the way it should be. I’m for saving more lives and giving them chances in Gene Therapy as long as it continues to get developed and improved.

Citations:

“Genes and Gene Therapy.” The Facts about Genes and Gene Therapy. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2017.

“Is Gene Therapy Safe? – Genetics Home Reference.” U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health, 23 May 2017. Web. 29 May 2017.

“List of Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy.” OccupyTheory. N.p., 13 Apr. 2015. Web. 29 May 2017.

“Struggling with the High Cost of Gene Therapy.” Rare Disease Report. Ruth J Hickman, MD, and James Radke, Ph.D., 10 May 2016. Web. 29 May 2017.


Cloning

I chose cloning because it seems very interesting to be able to make an exact copy of another human being I would like to see how it would effect us as original copies and how would we react to them.

 

3 questions I would like to know while researching the topic are:

  1. how close are we to  actually cloning someone?
  2. what is the closest thing we ever gotten to actually  cloning?
  3.  what are the pros and cons of cloning?


Application to Medicine

The application of Genetic Engineering is the medicine that I have chosen to write about. I have chosen this application because it is a way to help people who need help and it is hard for them to find help from. There is 6 top of different and they are Cancer, Vaccination, produce of blood factory, Somatostatin, Lymphokines, Hormones. The reason those are more top because it is hard for people to get help and they look at DNA to be matched with the right medication they need. Without the DNA and giving any kind of medicine it can harm them and it can go bad. Giving medication to every action with their sickness they have to look at DNA and use it to find the right perfect medication. It’s important to know hoe it works before giving anything to anybody.


Genetic Engineering: Choosing an Application

A) The application of genetic engineering that I decided to look into was gene therapy.

B) I decided to choose this genetic engineering application because the other ones sounded simple but gene therapy seems to be a more complex application.

C) 1. What is gene therapy? 2. How is gene therapy done? 3. Why is gene therapy important?


Introducing Genetic Engineering

I was able to watch a video called “What is Genetic Engineering”, and the general idea I got from the video is that they would take a genetically engineered organism and fuse it with the modified DNA and having it become a better result. For example, they would take corn, and give it a specific DNA and make the corn more bigger, taste better, and/or last longer. For me, I believe that this is a bad idea because they are simply putting more DNA into organisms to make them seem more appealing. I think it represents GMOs and how they modify food into making them last longers and taste different and better to some.

 

Another video I saw was called “Recombinant DNA”, and the general idea for this one is that they would cut up a part of an organism’s DNA and connect it with bacterial plasmid and have it make copies of itself and get that desirable gene. It would go inside a bacteria at create more copies and later extract the DNA they want before doing the process all over again. For example, in the video, they would take a specific frog gene and stick them together with new plasmids into bacteria, they would multiply like crazy, then get tons of copies of your gene of interest. For me, I think this process is interesting and pretty cool because people were able to figure out how to cut up DNA and then make copies of it to have that trait become noticeable, resulting in them having the organism they want. The technology is very advanced, and it shows how it’s evolving.


Genetic Crop Study’s

The application that I have chosen is in Agriculture. I chose this particular application because I found it interesting how humans can change/ modify any type of crop they want so it can grow the way they want it to. Some questions i have in mind are Is this process still healthy after words for humans? Doesn’t modifying with a crop make it lose its vitamins? Is this process expensive to do?


Genetic engineering on Colones

My application of genetic engineering I have chosen, is knowing more about cloning. I choose this particular application because I learned about cloning recently and I thought interesting to learn more about it. My three questions are, Can cloning be done on humans? Can the clone survive? Can this be beneficial in anyway?


Genetic Engineering, Research

I chose to research more about Genetic Engineering on fish, and how they made the fish glow in the dark. I chose this application in particular because I briefly learned about glow in the dark fish when I took Biology in my sophomore year in High School. The three questions I hope to answer while I research this application are: where did they get the gene to make the fish glow in the dark? Do they only do this to certain fishes? Can you have these fishes as pets? And where can you buy them?


An Introduction to Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering is taking part of the DNA from an organism and connecting it to another organism to modify it so that it can have a certain trait it didn’t have before. Even though Genetic Engineering has been around for years, they’re still at the beginning stage to perfecting it. Ever since they have invented Genetic Engineering they have been able to create many things, like, insulin for diabetics, antibiotics, hormones, and have been able to alter ours foods. Before I started watching the videos and reading the articles about Genetic Engineering, the first thing I thought of was animals and food. I had read that in many labs they used animals to alter their genes, like making rats and fishes glow in the dark, and changing the genes of foods to make them bigger. After watching and reading about Genetic Engineering, though, while some companies might use it in a very negative way, I realized that it can also be used for good, like, creating medicine for people with diabetes, and creating vaccines for us.


Genetic Engineering

The idea I had about that Genetic Engineering is about DNA and it makes up with a simple of DNA. The DNA code has the same in everything but it is form and different way and it shows and makes up a spacial thing. When the scientist wants to make something new they take away a piece a DNA and they look at it and use a different DNA form and connect it together and make something new. It’s really interesting in which they make different forms and make something new or change something and make it better with just a simple DNA or replace a piece of DNA where it is in the wrong spot or it seems wrong in the ordinary.


Choosing an Applicant

The applicant of genetic engineering that I chose is Medicine, I chose this because using the genetic engineering can help cure deadly diseases, like Alzheimer’s Disease, diabetes, and heart disease. Also because using genetic engineering in medicine can help a lot of those who are in need.

Three questions that I would hope to answer about this are

  1. how do doctors use the genetic engineering in medicine?
  2. Ever since doctors used genetic engineering in medicine, have something ever went wrong to the point where it could be deadly?
  3. What if the genetic engineering that’s in the medicine doesn’t work out? Doesn’t help cure the patient? what do doctors do then?


The understanding of genetic engineering.

Genetic engineering is when a certain DNA is being inserted into another DNA to get the wanted results. It’s interesting to see how DNA can be inserted into to bacterial DNA, and since bacteria increases faster, the result that you want will be increasing fast, this’s good when it comes to medicine. But what was really surprising to me was the fact that the DNA acts as the instruction manual for the body, different parts of the organism are made when certain genes code for certain proteins. I learned that the Enzyme ECOR1 is used to cut the DNA and the DNA LIGASE is used to tape/put two different DNA’s together.


Genetic Engineering

My understanding of genetic engineering is taking DNA from another living organ and inserting it into another living organ. My gut reaction to genetic engineering was kinda disgusted by the way how many engineers use bacteria but it was reasonable considering it helps multiply the final product the person want’s. I wondered while watching both videos if we (the humane race) will take advantage of being able to genetically engineer  and start creating monsters and new species that are unnatural this was one of my most strongest gut reaction.


Genetic Engineering: An Introduction

My general understanding of genetic engineering is when scientist change the dna of one plant or put it on the other and make it create something new that almost the same. And my reaction was that mostly all companies do this and we eat it and is it good to eat.


Genetic Engineering: Researching an Application

http://www.ucsusa.org/our-work/food-agriculture/our-failing-food-system/genetic-engineering-agriculture

“Genetic Engineering in Agriculture.” Genetic Engineering in Agriculture. Union of Concerned Scientists, 2015. Web. 19 May 2017.

According to the Union of Concerned Scientist, they stated that those who support genetic engineering in agriculture look at many aspects of how it benefits crops. For instance, some examples are having crops tolerate droughts, produce more useful chemicals and reducing the use of pesticide. Also, not only did this source offer positive point of views, but it offered both perspectives. For example, a negative aspect about genetic engineering on agriculture this source mentions is that GE crops have the potential to cause a variety of health problems and environmental impacts. This source also has legal implications for GE in agriculture, it mentions that policy decisions about the use of GE have too often been driven by biotech industry public relations campaigns, rather than by what science tells us about the most cost-effective ways to produce food and preserve the health of the people.  

 

http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/our-failing-food-system/genetic-engineering/risks-of-genetic-engineering.html

“Genetic Engineering Risks and Impacts.” Genetic Engineering Risks and Impacts. Union of Concerned Scientists, n.d. Web. 19 May 2017.

The Union of Concerned Scientists acknowledges the different types of Genetic Engineering risks to human life and the impacts to the environment. This source also offers different perspectives and solutions to the problems in Genetic Engineering, and also informs the reader of the long term effects/ consequences of the potential solutions.

 

http://isaaa.org/resources/publications/pocketk/17/default.asp

“Genetic Engineering and GM Crops.” Genetic Engineering and GM Crops. ISAAA, Aug. 2016. Web. 19 May 2017.

ISSAAA, also known as International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, first addresses what Genetic Engineering is, and how it is used with technology. This source offers both point of views for GE too, which further on make the reader consider both sides (positive and negative) effects. This source also allows the reader to comprehend what ISSAAA is saying, for example there are flow diagrams, comparison charts and T charts that make one think more about GE.

 

http://www.genengnews.com/gen-exclusives/genetic-engineering-and-crops-the-crispr-conundrum/77900820

Billings, Nathan A., Nishat Shaikh, and Brian Reese. “Genetic Engineering and Crops: The CRISPR Conundrum | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News – Biotech from Bench to Business.” Genetic Engineering and Crops: The CRISPR Conundrum. GEN, 02 Jan. 2017. Web. 19 May 2017.

Billings, Shaikh, and Reese offer the reader with an introduction about GE, specifically agricultural GMOs. This source gives the reader other background information about the GMOs, which further on provide the basic information one needs to understand. This source also provides information on the legal implementations, for instance in both the U.S. and the EU, transgenic genetically modified (GM) crops must be approved by regulatory agencies before they can be marketed. Both the U.S. and EU have mandatory GM labeling requirements, even though the structures of the U.S. law are less harsh/ strict than the ones in EU. This source also provides a conclusion, with an overview or summary about historical GMOs and the connection to the agricultural biotech industry.


What is Genetic engineering by Curtis Angelo

My understanding of what genetic engineering is that, it’s a DNA mixed with others genes to make modifications of crops  and medication. People who thinks  genetic engineering is great might not oppose of my opinion because I argue that genetic modification is causing environmental damages by pesticides being more resistant and more immune to generic crops. The fact that the scientists are using these technology to produce more genetic gene is unnatural.


Genetic Engineering: An introduction

Genetic engineering is the modification of organisms’ characteristics/ traits by editing or alternating its DNA. Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, and medicine. My gut reaction to genetic engineering was the feeling of astonishment. I felt this way because it is very interesting and shocking being able to know that people can change an organism’s DNA, something that people weren’t able to do years ago. But, today, we are able to have people do these things, and knowing that it can change science in a whole new way, such as having cures for diseases is amazing.


Agriculture

I choose agriculture because growing plants and crops was something I would do on a daily basis when I was younger. Why do we have GMO foods? Are GMO foods safe? How can we tell the difference between organic food and GMO food?


Understanding Genetic Engineering

My first reaction, about genetic engineering, was quite confusing because I never heard of a way we can add genetic genes to something. I feel like we are using it the right way because it’s helping people eat, then again we shouldn’t go overboard. For example, trying using them to have your own genetic child, basically the perfect child.

https://www.youthvoices.live/tag/geneticengineering/