These are a few articles I have found in a search for a research, and there is a summary of each source.
Lenow, Evan. “The Challenge of Homosexuality for Gender Roles.” Journal for Biblical Manhood & Womanhood, vol. 17, no. 2, Fall 2012, pp. 28–35. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=asn&AN=90599238&site=ehost-live.
It explains why homosexuality breaks God-given gender roles. It references the three focuses of purity, unity, and procreation that contradict the gender norms God gave us. Since humans were made to make humans, homosexuals cannot fulfill that requirement. Since they cannot have sex, they cannot be united and that breaks the gender norms. Since they cannot technically get married, they cannot procreate, it would be impure to have sex because it would be outside of marriage. Link to annotations
Newman, Bernie Sue. “College Students’ Attitudes About Lesbians: What Difference Does 16 Years Make?” Journal of Homosexuality, vol. 52, no. 3/4, May 2007, pp. 249–265. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1300/J082v52n03_12.
Men are stated as more
Rondini, Carina Alexandra, et al. “Homophobic Conceptions of High School Students.” Psicologia USP, vol. 28, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 57–71. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1590/0103-656420140011.
Vicinus, Martha. “`They Wonder to Which Sex I Belong’; The Historical Roots of the Modern Lesbian Identity.” Feminist Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, Fall 1992, p. 467. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2307/3178078.
There has always been a suppression of female sexuality. It is almost impossible to pinpoint the history of lesbian beginnings. There is not a lot known in the legal realm of lesbians either. Lesbianism is usually defined as American romantic friendships or butch-femme relationships. Women’s sexuality is not an either/or choice. When it should be determined by a person’s sexual option choice. The mercantile economy in 17 and 18th centuries in northern Europe led to women being more individualistic. Women would crossdress for better pay, more job opportunities, and freedom. Also, to appear to be in a heterosexual relationship with a female. The word “friend” in the 18th century changed its meaning to be nonfamilial relationships with particular importance. Lesbians sparked as a romantic friendship. However, women’s friendships were still tightly controlled by definitions of respectability. Mary East and her partner had a successful inn that they ran under the name “James How.” They were blackmailed and paid to keep gay marriage a secret. In the 19th century, the mannish women appeared. Link to article
Robinett, Jeremy. “Heteronormativity in Leisure Research: Emancipation as Social Justice.” Leisure Sciences, vol. 36, no. 4, July 2014, pp. 365–378. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/01490400.2014.917000.
At the 2008 Gay Softball World Series, five men were charged with not being gay. They were then forced to explain themselves and their sexualities before a protest committee. Despite that their second place was invalidated because the committee decided three men were not gay. After they changed their rules to include gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender as under the umbrella and made sexual identities self-declared. Also, the team got their second place back with an agreement. The norm is the mindset that officials can better decide sexuality than an individual. Categorization can be used justly but it is often changed with bias, researchers can have a bias. The “Don’t Say Gay” bill did seek to prohibit “the teaching or furnishing of materials on human sexuality other than heterosexuality in public school grades K-8.” Sex is biological and gender is socially determined and individually identified. Sexual orientation “refers to an individual’s enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to another person.” Sexual Orientations doesn’t have one specific origin. Link to
Singh, Sejal, and Laura E. Durso. “Widespread Discrimination Continues to Shape LGBT People’s Lives in Both Subtle and Significant Ways.” Center for American Progress, 2 May 2017, www.americanprogress.org.
LGBT People have come a long way in society but