These are a few articles I have found in a search for a research, and there is a summary of each source.

Lenow, Evan. “The Challenge of Homosexuality for Gender Roles.” Journal for Biblical Manhood & Womanhood, vol. 17, no. 2, Fall 2012, pp. 28–35. EBSCOhost,

It explains why homosexuality breaks God-given gender roles. It references the three focuses of purity, unity, and procreation that contradict the gender norms God gave us. Since humans were made to make humans, homosexuals cannot fulfill that requirement. Since they cannot have sex, they cannot be united and that breaks the gender norms. Since they cannot technically get married, they cannot procreate, it would be impure to have sex because it would be outside of marriage. Link to annotations

Newman, Bernie Sue. “College Students’ Attitudes About Lesbians: What Difference Does 16 Years Make?” Journal of Homosexuality, vol. 52, no. 3/4, May 2007, pp. 249–265. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1300/J082v52n03_12.

Men are stated as more bias towards lesbians than women. This focused on lesbian women and their perceptions from 1985 to 2001. Gender roles are partially mentioned. The main factor in forming feelings on issues depends on a person’s parents’ feelings. When asked about what their parents’ opinions were the individual often had the same opinion. Everyone in the study became more open to the idea of lesbians over the 16 years. Link to article

Rondini, Carina Alexandra, et al. “Homophobic Conceptions of High School Students.” Psicologia USP, vol. 28, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 57–71. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1590/0103-656420140011.

History of homosexual as a word, and how it used to be normal. How men used to be homosexual and it was normal. How the gay liberation made everyone see the homosexual in each of us.”Heterocentrism is a way to think, act and feel that uses heterosexuality as a reference for desires, ideals, principles and values, which in its turn produces a feeling of superiority with respect to all other manifestations of sexual orientation.” Machismo is the idea that men are inferior to women. Lesbophobia, negativity towards lesbians, was the highest-occuring of all the topics measured. Boys were measured to be more homophobic and transphobic. This is high schoolers’ general ideas of the topic of lgbtqia+. Link to article

Robinett, Jeremy. “Heteronormativity in Leisure Research: Emancipation as Social Justice.” Leisure Sciences, vol. 36, no. 4, July 2014, pp. 365–378. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/01490400.2014.917000.

At the 2008 Gay Softball World Series, five men were charged with not being gay. They were then forced to explain themselves and their sexualities before a protest committee. Despite that their second place was invalidated because the committee decided three men were not gay. After they changed their rules to include gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender as under the umbrella and made sexual identities self-declared. Also, the team got their second place back with an agreement. The norm is the mindset that officials can better decide sexuality than an individual. Categorization can be used justly but it is often changed with bias, researchers can have a bias. The “Don’t Say Gay” bill did seek to prohibit “the teaching or furnishing of materials on human sexuality other than heterosexuality in public school grades K-8.” Sex is biological and gender is socially determined and individually identified. Sexual orientation “refers to an individual’s enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to another person.” Sexual Orientations doesn’t have one specific origin. Link to article

Singh, Sejal, and Laura E. Durso. “Widespread Discrimination Continues to Shape LGBT People’s Lives in Both Subtle and Significant Ways.” Center for American Progress, 2 May 2017,

LGBT People have come a long way in society but still deal with daily struggles. Often they will make changes to their everyday lives to avoid discrimination. There are no laws that protect LGBT people from discrimination. People will often be fired, not hired, or not given a promotion because of their identities. Also, some will alter their voice and dress differently to be respected, not seen as LGBT. LGBT are even denied health care at times. Many will remain silent about their identities and even drive farther to jobs to live in a safe community. Not to mention the daily harassment on the streets if any sign of affection is shown. Link to article


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