The main question in the article I read was, ” Do the geographic concentrations of race and poverty observed today play a role in maintaining racial inequality?”. The simple answer is yes, but the more complex answer is more complicated than that.

Aan experimental program called Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing mobility program is used to address the mentioned question and test the strength of the neighborhood effects. But the results had little effect on answering the question and determining the main problems, such as educational achievement.

There are two explanations when determining whether or not a neighborhood affects an individual, the cause explanation, and the consequence explanation. The cause explanation is saying that a person will have different employment, attainment, or poverty outcomes depending on where they live. So, if an individual lives in an impoverished neighborhood, they will have access to low-quality schools, violence, etc. If that individual lives in a richer neighboorhood, they will have access to high-quality schools and higher chances of getting a job. On the other hand, the consequence cause says that o matter where a person grows up, he or she will have the same level of education, employment, and poverty.

“Neighborhood Effects” refers to ways a place impacts the people living there. These effects take action through two interactions, physical and social. Physical environment/ interaction is when living in a poor neighborhood result in negative influences such as violence, low-quality schools, etc. Social interactions when living in impoverished neighborhoods results in fewer social connections leading to a job, and higher chronic conditions that lead to toxic stress.

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